ASSOCIATES



Gustavus Vassa was acquainted with a number of prominent individuals, and he probably knew others for whom there is no documentary evidence. He also referred to other individuals whom he knew, especially in London, about whom little if anything known beyond Vassa's reference. There were also several associations and affiliations that referred to groups, such as the Huntingdonians, the Black Poor, the Sons of Africa, and the London Corresponding Society. By highlighting the individuals Vassa knew or possibly knew, Vassa's world expands considerably, and the list increases exponentially with his book tours and the sale of subscriptions to his autobiography, ultimately generating hundreds of individuals who purchased at least one copy of his book. Vassa's associates are divided into seven categories: Family, Slavery, Abolition, Religion, Scientific, Military and Subscribers.

Family

Family

Gustavus Vassa was born in 1745 in the Igbo region of the Kingdom of Benin, today southern Nigeria. He was the youngest son in a family of six sons and a daughter. He was stolen with his sister and sold into slavery at the age of 11. Not much is known about his Igbo family, aside from what is included in his memoir. In 1792, he married a white woman named Suzannah Cullen. The couple had two daughters, Anne Marie Vassa and Joanna Vassa. Anne Marie passed away shortly after Vassa’s death. Joanna went on to marry a congregationalist minister named Reverend Henry Bromley. The lives of his family members are detailed in this section.

Slavery

Slavery

Olaudah Equiano was kidnapped when he was about eleven or twelve and arrived in Barbados in mid 1754. During his experience as a slave before he was able to purchase his own freedom in 1767, he was associated with a number of individuals, three of whom were his owner, a Mr. Campbell in Virginia, Captain Michael Henry Pascal, and merchant Robert King. The section also includes his two closest friends during his enslavement, Richard Baker and John Annis, and King Gustavus Vasa I of Sweden, his namesake, and finally Ambrose Lace, a leading Liverpool slave trader.

Abolition

Abolition

Gustavus Vassa became a leading member of the abolitionist movement in the middle to late 1780s, publishing the first edition of his autobiography in the spring of 1789 as Parliament opened its hearings into the slave trade. This section identifies many of the individuals with whom Vassa was associated in the struggle to end the slave trade and to expose the barbarities of slavery.

Religion

Religion

Through his slave master, Michael Henry Pascal, Gustavus Vassa was introduced to the Guerin family, relatives of Pascal who were devoutly religious. The Guerin sisters taught Vassa how to read and write, and instructed him on the principles of Christianity. Under their guidance, Vassa was baptized in 1759. Six years later, in 1765, Vassa heard the famous Calvinist Methodist preacher, George Whitefield, preach in Savannah. Whitefield and the Countess of Huntingdon’s Calvinist orientation of Methodism had a profound influence on Vassa. Throughout his life, he was affiliated with many religious figures, such as the Quakers, who were one of the first organizations to take a collective stand against the institution of slavery.

Scientific

Scientific

In 1772, Gustavus Vassa was employed by Dr. Charles Irving to help him with the operation of a sea water distillation apparatus on two ships. This was the first of many scientific connections that Vassa developed over the years. He participated in an exploration of the Arctic alongside Dr. Irving and Constantine John Phipps. He was recruited to be part of a plantation scheme in the Mosquito Shore, which introduced him to Alexander Blair, an investor who was connected to distinguished chemist James Keir and the famed steam machine inventor, James Watt. As Vassa’s narrative gained popularity, his life story peaked the interest of the so-called “father of physical anthropology,” Johann Friedrich Blumenbach. The men were mutually acquainted with the President and founder of the Royal Society, Joseph Banks and met in person. These connections, among others, are detailed in this section.

Military

Military

Gustavus Vassa travelled extensively as a seaman. He fought in the Seven Years War, where he met war hero, General James Wolfe. When he eventually settled in London in the 1770s, he became deeply involved in the political sphere, landing him various government and military connections. In his fight against the institution of slavery, he wrote many letters to high ranking officials, some of which were presented in front of the House of Commons. He participated in a disastrous plantation scheme on the British-controlled Mosquito Shore, during which time he met the son of the Miskitu kings and soon to be King George II. He worked for a former government official of the short-lived Province of Senegambia, Matthias McNamara, and participated in a resettlement scheme for the black poor in the Sierra Leone peninsula. His connections with various military and government officials are listed here.

Matthias McNamara
Horatio Nelson
Edward Despard
James Wolfe
Robert Hodgson
King George I of Mosquito Shore
King George II of Mosquito Shore
King George III
William Pitt
Sir William Dolben
Thomas Wallace
Michael White
Thomas Steele
Mr. M’Intosh (William Macintosh)
Augustus Keppel
John Mondle
George Pitt
Captain Charles O’Hara
Subscribers

Subscribers

Like many other first-time authors in the 18 th century, Vassa followed a subscription-based model to secure funding for his autobiography, which he published himself. In this way, he was able to retain its copyright, a feat virtually unheard of for a black, formerly enslaved man during this period. To do so, he sold the book by subscription, convincing individuals to commit to purchasing the book prior to publication, for a discounted price. Vassa’s original list of subscribers to his first edition was 311,and by the 9th edition, it had increased to 894. This section provides a list of the subscribers for various editions of the narrative, which included many well-known abolitionists, religious figures, government officials, and others.

George Pitt

1721-1803

George Pitt was born in Geneva in 1721. As the first son, he was given the same name as his father. His mother Mary Louisa Bernier came from Strasbourg. He studied at Winchester in 1731 and entered Magdalen College on September 26, 1737. His younger brother was General Sir William Augustus Pitt. 

George Pitt married Penelope Mary Atkins, born in 1725 daughter of Sir Henry Atkins, 4th Baronet and Penelope Stonhouse, on January 5, 1746 in Clapham, England at the age of 23. George and Penelope had four children together. 

George was a Member of Parliament (M.P) for Shaftsbury and Dorset in the years 1742-1747 and 1754-1774 respectively. George was raised as the first Baron Rivers of Stratfield-Say, Southhampton on May 20, 1776.  In 1780, he was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Hampshire, only for two years. He was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Dorset in 1793. 

George Pitt is identified in The Interesting Narrative as colonel of the Dorset militia from 1757 to 1798, and a subscriber of Vassa’s book. 

Pitt passed away in 1803, at age 82, on May 7, 1803.

According to Vassa in The Interesting Narrative 9th ed.

A nobleman in the Dorsetshire militia: probably George Pitt (1721-1803), Baron Rivers, colonel of the Dorset militia from 1757, and an original subscriber for two copies of Vassa’s narrative. The camp at Coxheath, near Maidstone in Kent, was the largest of the military camps established in early 1778 throughout southern England in anticipation of a French invasion.
(Carretta, Penguin ed., pg. 296, note, 621)

By placement and implication, the subscribers are Equiano’s co-petitioners. Although, like many of his subscribers, not qualified to vote, Equiano thus declares himself a loyal member of the larger British polity, which can still effect change within the walls of Westminster. He effectively aligns himself politically with subscribing members of Parliament like William Dolben, George Pitt, George Rose, and Samuel Whitbread, all of whom opposed the trade
(pg. XVlll, INTRODUCTION)

 

Prepared by Golgisoo Jafari, 20 September 2021

 

RELATED FILES AND IMAGES

REFERENCES

“Pitt, George, First Baron Rivers (1721–1803), Politician and Diplomatist.” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Accessed July 14, 2021. 

 Portrait of George Pitt, 1st Baron Rivers (1721-1803) by Thomas Gainsborough, oval · Victoria & Albert Museum, London, UK / bridgemanimages.com

Talbot, William S. "Thomas Gainsborough: George Pitt, First Lord Rivers." The Bulletin of the Cleveland Museum of Art 58:9 (1971), 258-68. 

Vassa, Gustavus. The Interesting Narrative and Other Writings, edited with an introduction and notes by Vincent Carretta, reprint of 9th edition (London and New York: Penguin, 2003). 



This webpage was last updated on 2021-10-08 by Kartikay Chadha

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Portrait of George Pitt, 1st Baron Rivers (1721-1803) by Thomas Gainsborough, oval · Victoria & Albert Museum, London, UK

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