ASSOCIATES



Gustavus Vassa was acquainted with a number of prominent individuals, and he probably knew others for whom there is no documentary evidence. He also referred to other individuals whom he knew, especially in London, about whom little if anything known beyond Vassa's reference. There were also several associations and affiliations that referred to groups, such as the Huntingdonians, the Black Poor, the Sons of Africa, and the London Corresponding Society. By highlighting the individuals Vassa knew or possibly knew, Vassa's world expands considerably, and the list increases exponentially with his book tours and the sale of subscriptions to his autobiography, ultimately generating hundreds of individuals who purchased at least one copy of his book. Vassa's associates are divided into seven categories: Family, Slavery, Abolition, Religion, Scientific, Military and Subscribers.

Family

Family

Gustavus Vassa was born in 1745 in the Igbo region of the Kingdom of Benin, today southern Nigeria. He was the youngest son in a family of six sons and a daughter. He was stolen with his sister and sold into slavery at the age of 11. Not much is known about his Igbo family, aside from what is included in his memoir. In 1792, he married a white woman named Suzannah Cullen. The couple had two daughters, Anne Marie Vassa and Joanna Vassa. Anne Marie passed away shortly after Vassa’s death. Joanna went on to marry a congregationalist minister named Reverend Henry Bromley. The lives of his family members are detailed in this section.

Slavery

Slavery

Olaudah Equiano was kidnapped when he was about eleven or twelve and arrived in Barbados in mid 1754. During his experience as a slave before he was able to purchase his own freedom in 1767, he was associated with a number of individuals, three of whom were his owner, a Mr. Campbell in Virginia, Captain Michael Henry Pascal, and merchant Robert King. The section also includes his two closest friends during his enslavement, Richard Baker and John Annis, and King Gustavus Vasa I of Sweden, his namesake, and finally Ambrose Lace, a leading Liverpool slave trader.

Abolition

Abolition

Gustavus Vassa became a leading member of the abolitionist movement in the middle to late 1780s, publishing the first edition of his autobiography in the spring of 1789 as Parliament opened its hearings into the slave trade. This section identifies many of the individuals with whom Vassa was associated in the struggle to end the slave trade and to expose the barbarities of slavery.

Black Poor
Sons of Africa
Lord Mansfield
Granville Sharp
William Wilberforce
Thomas Clarkson
John Clarkson
Ottobah Cugoano
Ignatius Sancho
Joseph Bologne, Chevalier de Saint-Georges
Thomas Hardy
Josiah Wedgwood
Queen Charlotte
James Ramsay
Anthony Benezet
Religion

Religion

Through his slave master, Michael Henry Pascal, Gustavus Vassa was introduced to the Guerin family, relatives of Pascal who were devoutly religious. The Guerin sisters taught Vassa how to read and write, and instructed him on the principles of Christianity. Under their guidance, Vassa was baptized in 1759. Six years later, in 1765, Vassa heard the famous Calvinist Methodist preacher, George Whitefield, preach in Savannah. Whitefield and the Countess of Huntingdon’s Calvinist orientation of Methodism had a profound influence on Vassa. Throughout his life, he was affiliated with many religious figures, such as the Quakers, who were one of the first organizations to take a collective stand against the institution of slavery.

Scientific

Scientific

In 1772, Gustavus Vassa was employed by Dr. Charles Irving to help him with the operation of a sea water distillation apparatus on two ships. This was the first of many scientific connections that Vassa developed over the years. He participated in an exploration of the Arctic alongside Dr. Irving and Constantine John Phipps. He was recruited to be part of a plantation scheme in the Mosquito Shore, which introduced him to Alexander Blair, an investor who was connected to distinguished chemist James Keir and the famed steam machine inventor, James Watt. As Vassa’s narrative gained popularity, his life story peaked the interest of the so-called “father of physical anthropology,” Johann Friedrich Blumenbach. The men were mutually acquainted with the President and founder of the Royal Society, Joseph Banks and met in person. These connections, among others, are detailed in this section.

Military

Military

Gustavus Vassa travelled extensively as a seaman. He fought in the Seven Years War, where he met war hero, General James Wolfe. When he eventually settled in London in the 1770s, he became deeply involved in the political sphere, landing him various government and military connections. In his fight against the institution of slavery, he wrote many letters to high ranking officials, some of which were presented in front of the House of Commons. He participated in a disastrous plantation scheme on the British-controlled Mosquito Shore, during which time he met the son of the Miskitu kings and soon to be King George II. He worked for a former government official of the short-lived Province of Senegambia, Matthias McNamara, and participated in a resettlement scheme for the black poor in the Sierra Leone peninsula. His connections with various military and government officials are listed here.

Subscribers

Subscribers

Like many other first-time authors in the 18 th century, Vassa followed a subscription-based model to secure funding for his autobiography, which he published himself. In this way, he was able to retain its copyright, a feat virtually unheard of for a black, formerly enslaved man during this period. To do so, he sold the book by subscription, convincing individuals to commit to purchasing the book prior to publication, for a discounted price. Vassa’s original list of subscribers to his first edition was 311,and by the 9th edition, it had increased to 894. This section provides a list of the subscribers for various editions of the narrative, which included many well-known abolitionists, religious figures, government officials, and others.

Granville Sharp

(1735 – 1813)


Granville Sharp, known as one of the earliest abolitionists, was born in Durham, England, on November 10, 1735. He was the son of the archdeacon of Northumberland and the grandson of the Archbishop of York, John Sharp. In 1757, he completed his apprenticeship with a Quaker linen draper in London and became a freeman of the City of London and a member of the Fishmongers’ Company. The following year, he was hired as a clerk in the Office of Ordnance in Westminster. In 1777, he resigned from his position after the office created a series of discriminatory policies directed at rebellious American colonies.

In 1765, Sharp moved to Wapping to live with his brother, William, who was a surgeon. On one occasion, a black man by the name of Jonathan Strong, sought out his brother’s services, having been badly beaten by his slaveholder, David Lisle. Strong was rushed to St. Bartholomew’s Hospital where he made a slow but steady recovery. The man subsequently told the brothers how Lisle, after having brought him to England from Barbados, had become dissatisfied with his services and proceeded to beat him over the head with a pistol and then left him for dead in the streets. It was not long before Lisle located Strong and hired two slave hunters to transport him back to the Caribbean. Upon hearing the news, Sharp took Lisle to court, claiming that Strong should be considered a free man. In 1768, the courts ruled in his favour.

From this point on, Sharp devoted himself to the abolitionist cause, fighting against British laws that designated enslaved persons as the property of the slaveholder on English soil. In 1769, he published A Representation of the Injustice and Dangerous Tendency of Tolerating Slavery in England, a refutation of the Yorke and Talbot case, in which he presented legal and historical documents to suggest that slavery had no basis in English law and had always been illegal. This volume was the first of numerous books that Sharp wrote on the issue of slavery, the most notable of which include An Appendix to the Representation in 1771, The Just Limitation of Slavery in the Laws of God in 1776, and Serious Reflections on the Slave Trade and Slavery Addressed to the Peers of Great Britain in 1805.

As he became well-known in London’s African community, he was referred to other cases. In 1766 he took up the case of Mary Hylas and in 1770 that of Thomas Lewis. He was able to rescue both individuals from their slave masters; however, neither case resulted in a definitive ruling against slavery. In response to London’s growing population of poor blacks, he advanced the idea that free Africans should start a colony in Sierra Leone, which was supported by the British government. In 1786, Gustavus Vassa was hired as the Commissary Officer with the Sierra Leone expedition, perhaps due to his relationship with Sharp, who he had met in the late-1770s. Vassa was later dismissed for calling attention to corruption in the ship stocking process. The colony faced tremendous obstacles in settling and disputes soon broke out with the Koya Temne people from whom they had obtained land. In 1789, King Jimmy of the Koya Temne burnt the settlement to the ground.

In 1772, Sharp took up the case of James Somerset, an enslaved African who had been brought from Jamaica to England and, upon escaping servitude, was imprisoned on a return ship to Jamaica. After months of legal debate, Lord Mansfield, the Chief Justice of King’s Bench, ruled that Somerset was a free man and that a slaveholder could not forcibly remove an enslaved person from England. While the Mansfield ruling did not abolish slavery, it undermined it by denying slave masters the right to exercise their claims of possession, as enslaved Africans could legally obtain their freedom by escaping captivity. In 1774, Vassa called upon Sharp to help free a man named John Annis, whose former master, William Kirkpatrick, sought to illegally return him to the West Indies. This was likely the first time that Vassa and Sharp met. Several years later, in 1779, Sharp gifted Vassa a copy of one of his books. On a blank page within the book Vassa described Sharp as a “truly pious and benevolent man.” In 1780, Vassa wrote a letter to Sharp thanking him for his kindness, indicating that he had read three of Sharp’s treatises; The Just Limitations of Slavery & the Law of Passive Obedience (1776), The Law of Retribution (1776), and The Tract of the Law of Nature & Principles of Action in Man (1777). Previous to meeting Sharp, Vassa believed slavery could be reformed. Sharp’s treatises allowed him to see slavery for what it was, an inherently inhuman practice that must be abolished.

Sharp was also involved in making public the notorious Zong massacre, in which 133 enslaved Africans were murdered in order to claim insurance. Vassa brought the case to Sharp’s attention. In May 1787, Sharp joined Thomas Clarkson and other abolitionists in founding the Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade, an organization that was instrumental in achieving the abolition of the British slave trade in 1807. On December 15, 1787, Vassa, along with nine other men wrote a letter entitled “The Address of Thanks of the Sons of Africa to the Honourable Granville Sharp, Esq.,” commending him for his service to the black community, suggesting that his treatises should be collected and preserved. Of all leading abolitionists, Sharp was the most attentive to Vassa. He subscribed to multiple versions of his narrative and even went to see him on his deathbed prior to his passing on March 21, 1797. It is possible that on his deathbed, Vassa entrusted Sharp with the delivery of the money he had set aside in his will to build a school in Sierra Leone and that Sharp brought this money to the colony in 1798, although this is not confirmed. Sharp died on July 6, 1813. In 1820, Prince Hoare, an English painter and dramatist, wrote the Memoirs of Granville Sharp based on manuscripts, family documents, and material from the African Institution in London.

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REFERENCES

Carretta, Vincent. Equiano, the African: Biography of a Self-made Man (Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 2005).

Fladeland, Betty. “Granville Sharp,” in Betty Lorraine Fladeland, ed.,Abolitionists and Working-Class Problems in the Age of Industrialization (London: MacMillan, 1984), 1-16.

“Granville Sharp (1735-1813): The Civil Servant,” The Abolition Project, accessed October 24, 2017. http://abolition.e2bn.org/people_22.html

Hoare, Prince, Memoirs of Granville Sharp, Esq. (London: Henry Colborn, 1820).

Paley, Ruth. “After Somerset: Mansfield, Slavery and the Law in England, 1772-1830,” in Norma Landau and Donna Andrews, eds., Crime and English Society, 1660-1830 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009), 165-84.

Simkin, John. “Granville Sharp,” Spartacus Educational, published September 1997. https://spartacus-educational.com/REsharp.htm *update whole reference

Wiecek, William M. “Somerset: Lord Mansfield and the Legitimacy of Slavery in the Anglo-Americans World,” University of Chicago Law Review 42:1 (1974), 45-68.



This webpage was last updated on 18-April-2020, Fahad Q

Granville

Portrait by George Dance (1794), Mid-Georgian Portraits Catalogue, National Portrait Gallery, London.